Are Closed-ended Questions Leading Questions?

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Some courts, counsel and pundits criticize closed ended questions as being strongly suggested and even leading.  While many closed ended questions are indeed leading, it is not because they are closed ended questions, but because they exhibit one of several other question construction flaws.  This chapter from the American Bar Association’s recent book on trademark and deceptive advertising surveys discusses the issue in detail, identifying the factors that make closed ended questions leading questions and what needs to be done to avoid such problems.      Read more- Download PDF


Jacoby, J. (2012) “Are Closed-ended Questions Leading Questions?” In Shari S. Diamond and Jerre B. Swann (Eds.)  Trademark and Deceptive Advertising Surveys, Chicago: American Bar Association. Pages 257-280.


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